1. Geomorphology is devoted to the study of landforms, their evolution and related processes.

2. Climatology encompasses the study of structure of atmosphere and elements of weather and climates and climatic types and regions.

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3. Hydrology studies the realm of water over the surface of the earth including oceans, lakes, rivers and other water bodies and its effect on different life forms including human life and their activities.

4. Soil Geography is devoted to study the processed of soil formation, soil types, their fertility status and distribution.

Human Geography

1. Social Cultural Geography encompasses the study of society and its spatial dynamics as well as the cultural elements contributed by the society.

2. Population and Settlement Geography (Rural and Urban). It studies population growth, distribution, density, sex ratio, migration and occupational structure etc. settlement geography studies the characteristics of rural and urban settlements.

3. Economic Geography studies economic activities of the people including agriculture, industry, tourism, trade, and transport, infrastructure and service, etc.

4. Historical Geography studies the historical processes through which the space gets organized. Every region has undergone some historical experiences before attaining the present day status. The geographical features also experience temporal changes and these form the concerns of historical geography.

5. Political Geography looks at the space from the angle of political events and studies boundaries, space relations between neighboring political units, delimitation of constituencies election scenario and develops theoretical framework to understand the political behavior of the population.


The interface between physical geography and human geography has led to the development of Biogeography which includes:

1. Plant Geography which studies the spatial pattern of natural vegetation in their habitats.

2. Zoo Geography which studies the spatial patterns and geographic characteristics of animals and their habitats.

3. Ecology/Ecosystem deals with the scientific study of the habitats characteristics of species.

4. Environmental Geography concerns world over leading to the realization of environmental problems such as land gradation, pollution and concerns for conservation has resulted in the introduction of the new branch in geography.